hate, love, seize. Here we have three allomorphs which are phonologically conditioned: The final phoneme of the verb in its infinitival form decides upon the correct allomorph. If the verb ends in an alveolar plosive, we add /ɪd/ as in hate. With final voiced sounds other than alveolar plosives we add /-d/, otherwise /-t/. So far, so easy.
But there are a few adjectives with final <-ed> most of which require the pronunciation /ɪd/ or /əd/ (I may not have dug up all):
- -legged, legged3
- winged (sense: having wings)
|1||he aged quickly, she's aged 12||-->||my aged grandma|
|2||I was beloved again||-->||my beloved daughter|
|3||he blessed them||-->||the Blessed Virgin Mary|
|4||??||-->||what a cragged stone|
|5||its horns crooked backwards||-->||a crooked nose|
|6||she cursed her fate||-->||she's a cursed woman|
|7||the witch cussed him||-->||what a cussed day|
|8||planes are deuced by some people||-->||don't be so deuced obstinate|
|9||he dogged her footsteps||-->||their dogged resistance|
|10||he jagged his hand||-->||Cornwall's jagged coast|
|11||I've never learned this||-->||my learned friend|
|12||I got on my toes and legged it||-->||he sat cross-legged on a stool|
|13||??||-->||she was stark naked|
|14||??||-->||men in ragged clothes|
|15||he reserved two seats||-->||go fetch the reserved tickets|
|16||she ragged him mercilessly about his sex life||-->||a land of rugged mountains|
|17||??||-->||our chapel is a sacred place|
|18||??||-->||she is a wicked person|
|19||the bird winged back and forth||-->||Pegasus is a winged horse|
|20||??||-->||he made the wretched happy|
- What about their pronunciations?
|1 aged|| 'of a particular age' |
|2 beloved||-->||bɪˈlʌvɪd, bɪˈlʌvd|
|5 crooked|| 'not straight' |
'having a crook'
|6 cursed||-->||'kɜːsɪd, kɜːst|
|8 deuced||-->||'djuːsɪd, djuːst|
|19 winged||-->||wɪŋd, 'wɪŋɪd (= poetic)|
1 based on LPD3 and CPD18 (if listed at all); /æ/ -> /a/; the reference accent is GB.
2 nominal = adjectival and substantival
3 My thanks go to John Maidment for drawing my attention to these two verbs. The sentences were pinched from various sources.