Here's a list of its publication years:
|1st||1948 (1942)2||xxxxxxxxxx||non nominatus|
|3rd||1974||Jack Windsor Lewis|
|8th||Line 3 Col 2||2010||Michael Ashby|
1. First editions (1942/1948)
I don't have access to the 1st ed. either of the ISED or the ALD, so I have to make do with two scans - the cover of the ISED and a scan of two of its pages:
2. Second edition (1963)
No mention is made of the pronunciation standard or norm on which the transcriptions are based. What we are told is that "the transcription is a broad one, as used by Professor Daniel Jones in his English Pronouncing Dictionary" (xi).
3. Third edition (1974)
Try, for example, the idiom 'to have a good head on one's shoulders': First, where would you place the main stress? Then, try to look it up in a general dictionary other than the ALD. Found it? Chances are slim that you did. Now, look it up in the ALD! Found it? It's listed in the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th editions. Answer: The main stress is on 'head'.
In a separate section titled "Pronunciation and stress" (pp. xii-xv) J Windsor Lewis states that he transcriptions represent "the best known variety of British English" (xii) and of American English. The latter is known as General American (abbreviated to GA), "the other may be conveniently termed General British" (xii) (abbreviated to 'GB' in his notes to the dictionary).
4. Fourth edition (1989)
ənd/ for and, but the statement that the indication of stress in idioms is "a new feature" is plain wrong.
I do not know who was responsible for the explanatory section on pronunciation on p. xviii. All we get to know about the model accent is that it is based on the "normal British pronunciation" and the "normal American one" (xviii). In the back matter to the dictionary on p. 1547 there are six lines on "[m]odels of pronunciation": "The British English form is that which has been called Received Pronunciation (RP) or General British." On p. 1552 we are informed about the American English model: It is "one which is widely acceptable in the US and has been called General American.". The label used to indicate the American English variant is US.
5. Fifth edition (1995)
To find some statements about the underlying model(s) one has to take a look at the back inside cover, which is unpaginated. Here we read: "The first pronunciation given in the dictionary is that of younger speakers of General British (Brit). This includes RP (Received Pronunciation) and a range of similar accents which are not strongly regional. [...] The American pronunciations chosen are as far as possible the most general (not associated with any particular region)."
I would like to have been given an example of a transcription of a lemma illustrating an accent similar to but not identical with RP.
6. Sixth edition (2000)
The label for the American English pron is AmE.
7. Seventh edition (2005)
8. Eighth edition (2010)
Starting with the 3rd edition (with the exception of the fourth) the term used for the British English model pronunciation is General British. This notion encompasses RP and some additional accents of low regional marking.
1A name is entered only if credit is explicitly given.
2 The 1948 edition distributed by OUP was a photographic reprint of the dictionary published in Tokyo in 1942 under the title Idiomatic and Syntactic English Dictionary (= ISED).
3Michael Ashby retired from UCL in 2012.
What a useful blog post, Petr!ReplyDelete
Thanks for your kind words, Alex!Delete
A good 'un.ReplyDelete
Michael Ashby retired in 2011, btw.
Thanks, John. As for 2011, I should have known better. On the other hand, I wouldn't have begrudged him an additional year at UCL or two or three ...Delete
Hornby contributed the phonetic stuff himself in ALD1 and ALD2. His use of phonetics was not revealed at the very brief ALD1 introductory section headed 'Pronunciation'. This was limited to seven lines about the International Phonetic Alphabet in general. However, its link to pages xxvi to xxvii led to all he had to say about the pronunciations, eg "What [(h)wɔt] may be pronounced [wɔt] as in Southern English or [hwɔt] as in Northern English and America". He referred to Jones in a paragraph headed "The Sound [r]". In it he again used his term saying "In Southern English" but adding in brackets (with disdain?) "(or what Professor Daniel Jones calls “Received Pronunciation”) r is silent when it occurs at the end of a word or when it is followed by another consonant..In other parts of the English-speaking world, the r may be sounded in every case". His symbols for phonemes were all exactly those in Jones's EPD at that day. His only departure from Jones's practice was that at primary and secondary stressed syllables he used accents, acute over the simple vowels and initial elements of diphthongs for the former and grave over the latter. For ALD2 he didn't change much except to drop the stress accents and come into line with Jones's IPA stress-marks.ReplyDelete
@JWL: Thanks for these int'r'sting additions. In ALD2 the link that you mention is to pages xxxi to xxxii. However, there's no section on the sound /r/ in this edition.Delete
Hornby uses the expression "British usage" on p. xi.